The term “Globalization” derives from the term “global”, while it refers to an action driven by international factors such as trades,
technology, cultural or economic development. It is a continuous process that started with the earliest civilizations and doesn’t have an end, since humanity keeps changing and developing. It has been known that the process intensified once the Medieval Ages, when culture and science suffered a strong change that helped building the society we see nowadays. Countries, communities and people interact and change thoughts and knowledge in order to help development, since this process takes part in a community where resources and funds are allocated for improvement. For example, a wealthy city or country will reach a higher level than a poor village, where people merely have food or water. Thus, globalization affects all countries on Earth, since life standards are set.
Some of the main advantages of globalization include international exchange of information, services or products. Here we can find tourism, culture, education and sports as important factors in international exchange and trade, leading to multiculturalism, people and capital migrations and multi-lateral partnerships between international organizations, such as the UN, GCC or the Arab League, larger variety of product choices, competitive rates and services, as well as cheap labor force. However, nowadays we are dealing with disadvantages as well, like illegal immigration or human traffic, human rights violation, social insecurity and massive threats to indigenous cultures, while tradition might be impacted in a negative manner.
There have been numerous books and articles written in regards to the moment when globalization started to evolve. Some believe that it has started when early civilizations were built, while others believe it might have had a starting point with religion spread during the first century. However, it seems that during the Dark Ages it stood in place, since all countries suffered changes, war encounters, illness and others, while science was regarded as witchcraft. According to the European Review of Economic History, there is no specific year when countries all over the world started international exchange, even if the 15th century meant many trades between developed countries. Economy became important in the nineteenth century, speeding up the process of globalization all around the world (O’Rourke, Williamson, 2004).
According to Amartya Sen, globalization helped international culture and economy, since many people received benefits. This is a point of view of a Nobel-Prize winner in Economy, who sees the benefits and advantages of globalization, while others disagree. Even though the United Nations has predicted that poverty may be removed in the 21th century, free market economics consider that inequality levels have increased. While technology improved and brought more gadgets on the market, the Monetary Fund admitted in 2007 that the difference between the poor and the rich is even more obvious. Furthermore, these differences are even increasing, while companies offer jobs to cheap workforce through offshoring, or even choosing employees from poor regions, so that they can pay less than they would pay in a developed city or country. Therefore, it is a known fact that globalization can have both benefits and disadvantages, depending on the type of international exchanges and the partners taking part into this process.